Tag Archive | bulbs

Forcing Bulbs for Winter Color

by OCMGA Master Gardener Tammy Borden

Who says gardening has to wait until spring? By forcing bulbs you are convincing a 5af4ee4d3b54cd5096b5ab4cfa505ee1--indoor-flowering-plants-indoor-flowersspring bulb that it has slept through the winter months and are encouraging it to bloom early. It’s wonderful to have bright blooms and sweet scents during the grey and drab days of winter.

Forcing bulbs is not too difficult. It just takes time, patience, and a little advance planning. It may be a little late to start forcing some types of bulbs for this winter, but some bulbs are ready to go and need no advance planning! Here are some easy steps to getting your own beautiful indoor blooms.

Step #1 – Select Your Bulbs

Many bulbs require pre-chilling in order to grow indoors (35-40ºF is recommended – like in your refrigerator!). The catch here is that many ripening vegetables and fruits, especially apples, release ethylene gas, which can kill or damage the flowers, so if you store produce in your refrigerator, try a partially heated garage instead or use bulbs that do not require pre-chilling. Here are some suggestions for bulbs that work well for indoor forcing:

  • Amaryllis (requires no chilling)
  • Hyacinth (12-16 weeks of chilling)
  • Tulip and daffodil (12-16 weeks of chilling)
  • Crocus and grape hyacinth (12-14 weeks of chilling)
  • Paperwhite narcissus (Requires no chilling)
  • Autumn crocus or Colchicum autumnale (Requires no chilling)
  • Dutch Iris or Iris reticulata (Requires no chilling, but should be fed every 2 weeks)
  • Bluebells or Scilla (Requires no chilling)

Step #2 – Prepare Your Bulbs

There are several methods for growing bulbs indoors. Here are the most common:3d91d4169f8171f5f69d4648f30c4da9--amaryllis-bulbs-tulip-bulbs-in-a-vase

Pebbles & Water: Simply take a clear glass bowl, fill it with gravel or decorative stone. Firm the base of the pre-chilled bulbs into the pebbles until they stand firmly on their own. Next, fill water up to the base of the bulbs, but not high enough that it touches them (about 1/8 away). Keep it in a cool, dark location for a few weeks until they’re ready to bloom to help maintain strong stems and encourage root growth.

Water Forcing: There is an hourglass-shaped vase you can buy called a ‘Hyacinth Glass’. Simply fill the container with water, up to the tapered neck, set the pre-chilled bulb on the widened mouth of the container and it’s ready to grow. Again, do not let the bulb touch the water. Place bulbs in a dark, cool place for a few weeks before blooming.

Potting in Soil: Shallow pots are usually used for forcing, but you can use most anytp6kchcx1mts4wbeafa0 container, if it has holes for drainage. Fill the pot about 3/4 full with a peat based potting mix. Squeeze in as many bulbs as you can fit. You can use all one type or mix and match, but choose bulbs with a similar bloom time. Plant the bulbs flat side down and cover with potting mix. Leave the shoot tips poking out slightly above the soil line. Water until it comes out of the drainage holes. Next, chill the pot and all for the recommended time (above). You can do this by burying it in the ground outside, placing it in your garage, or in a refrigerator. When you bring the pot indoors, keep it in cooler temperatures for a few weeks until it’s ready to bloom.

Step #3 – After the Bloom

Unfortunately, forcing takes a lot out of a bulb so it may not bloom again for many seasons. Still, bulbs can be planted outside when the weather permits just as with any perennial. Do not remove the foliage until it has turned yellow. The bulbs should never be forced a second time, always start with new bulbs.

Have some fun this winter and give forcing a try!

You might also enjoy our previous blog posts on Forcing Amaryllis and Forcing Hyacinth

 

Advertisements

Spring Bulbs

We’ve been blessed with some fairly warm weather for this late in the year, and I suddenly remembered that I haven’t put my bulbs into the ground yet! Project for tomorrow!

RX-DK-HTG04001_spring-bulbs_s4x3_lgFlowering bulbs are one of the brightest spots of spring when you live in the north and enjoy a long winter. Such a dazzling display arising from such homely beginnings is truly miraculous. A minimal amount of time, effort, and money in the fall is rewarded spring after spring with a spectacular tapestry of color, texture, and fragrance.

In addition to true bulbs (daffodils, tulips, hyacinths, and lilies), this plant category includes corms (crocuses and gladioli), tubers (begonias, anemones, and cyclamens), tuberous roots (dahlias and foxtail lilies), and rhizomes (irises and trilliums). When selecting bulbs, choose those that are big, firm, and plump — generally the bigger the bulb the bigger the bloom. Avoid bulbs that are soft or have moldy spots.flower-bulbs-494399_960_720

When planting, choose a spot with rich, sandy, well-drained soil that is easily viewed from your window and plant bulbs in abundance, en masse, and in natural free-form drifts. Prepare the ground by digging a wide trench and working in compost or leaf mold. A good rule of thumb is to plant the bulbs three times as deep as they are high. Remember that anything too studied looks artificial – then throw caution to the wind and toss a handful of bulbs up in the air. Plant them, root-end-down, wherever they land. This landscaping method is a great stress-buster, and you will be pleased with the results of your no-design-is-the-best strategy.

87701Or, use a bulb planter to make 6- to 8-inch holes for large bulbs, and 2- to 4-inch holes for smaller bulb species. Space small bulbs 3 to 4 inches apart and large bulbs 5 to 6 inches apart. Topdress with any commercial bulb fertilizer.

With either method, cover bulbs with top soil and water them thoroughly. In cold zones, bulbs can be left in the ground. In warm and temperate zones (where temperatures remain above 20ºF/6ºC), chill the bulbs in a brown paper bag in the refrigerator (away from fruit) for 8 to 10 weeks before planting.

Select bulbs with different bloom times for a show of color from late winter through summer. Left undisturbed, the bulbs will colonize and produce profusely for years to come.

Early bloomers: Snowdrops (Galanthus), Winter Aconites (Eranthus hyemalis), and Crocuses. Crocus tommasinianus, in Easter-egg shades of pale lavender and deep purple, is usually the first to appear (and the corms are squirrel-resistant).

Mid-season: Daffodils and Jonquils (Narcissus), Siberian squill (Scilla), Grape Hyacinth (Muscari)

Late spring: Tulips, tulips, tulips! Colors range from brilliant red to deep maroon, from snowy white to bright yellow, and from beautiful shades of orange to variegated varieties in all colors. Shapes include the scalloped parrot, the pointed lily, and the artistic fringed tulip. Extend your tulip time by growing varieties bred for early, mid, and late blooming.

Bulb Farmers Rock!

OCMGA Master Gardener David Calle is passionate about gardens — especially historic gardens and finding a way to incorporate lessons from the past into our own gardens.

From David’s blog explaining the passion behind his blog:  “I created this blog to share my love of gardens and the stories and people behind them.  My passion for historic gardens has taken me to dozens of gardens across 5 continents.  I hope you will join me on this journey and share your comments and experiences.”

I’m crazy about his stories and one of his recent ones “Bulb Farmers Rock” really captured my fancy because, on my bucket list, is a trip to Keukenhof when the bulb fields are all in bloom.

Take a minute to enjoy David’s blog post, and subscribe so you won’t miss future blogs!

http://www.thegoodgarden.com/new-blog/tulips-garden-history-bulb-farmers

Tender Bulbs from the Tropics

The plants known as summer bulbs are like spring bulbs in that they use a wide assortment of true bulbs, corms, rhizomes, and tubers for energy storage. But unlike spring bulbs, they are not frost hardy. Gardeners in temperate zones must plant them each spring and — if they don’t want to keep buying new ones — must also dig them up in fall and store them over the winter.

Glorious bed of gladioli

Although this didn’t bother the Victorians, who were big summer-bulb fans, over time these tender beauties gradually fell out of fashion. Fortunately, fashion is ever changing, and summer bulbs are again a hot item, with new introductions constantly entering the market.

The big four — which never really went away — are cannas, dahlias, gladiolus, and tuberous begonias, but they are just the start of a list that also includes acidanthera, sometimes called the peacock orchid (Gladiolus callianthus), which has tubular white flowers with a deep purple throat; the Mexican shell flower or tiger flower

Agapanthus

(Tigridia pavonia), whose iris-shaped, spotted flowers come in many

bright hues; the Peruvian daffodil or ismene (Hymenocallis narcissiflora), which has fragrant white or yellow daffodil-like blooms; and agapanthus, which has lush clusters of narrow leaves and starry clumps of blue or white flowers.

Want more? How about the bright yellow, orange, and orange-red wands of Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora and its several close relatives; the tall, fragrant, white-flowered Galtonia candicans, sometimes called summer hyacinth; and perhaps most fragrant of all, the tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa).

All these and more are easy to plant, easy to love, and readily available, but to be sure of the widest selection, consult specialty catalogs as well as your local garden center.

by OCMGA Master Gardener Vicki Schilleman

Storing Tender Bulbs/Corms

By Kathy McCarthy

Do you love plants that have tender bulbs but think it is too much trouble to store them over winter? Hang on folks. The results may be worth your efforts and this is a great way to increase your supply. The directions are for plants I have been successful in storing.

Remember to dig carefully. It is important to loosen the roots gently, digging a few inches away from the plant. You want to avoid cutting or breaking the fleshy structure. Diseases enter through cuts and bruises.

Gladiolus

A gladiolus ““bulb”” is really a corm, a swollen underground stem. A new corm forms on top of the old one. While this is taking place, small new cormels are produced from the base. Corms can be dug when the foliage begins to yellow or before a hard freeze. After carefully digging the corms, cut off the old leaves close to the corm. Leave the corms outside in the sun for a day or two and then spread out in a garage or similar place to cure, but not on a cement floor. This will prevent storage rot. After a few weeks of drying, clean them by removing the roots and outer sheath of corm. Remove and discard the old corm. Store the corms in a mesh bag and hang them out of the way in a cool well-ventilated area. I use a mesh onion bag and hang it in my basement. The small cormels can also be saved and planted the following year, but it will take a few years to produce blooming plants.

Cannas

Dig the rhizomes in fall before the first frost. Remove the old stalks and gently brush off soil. They can be washed with a garden hose. Let them dry for a few days before storing. I store my rhizomes in a box filled with vermiculite. However they can also be stored in peat moss. Another way to store cannas is to leave the soil on the rhizomes and pile the clumps in a box. Cover with plastic and store in the basement or other dark, cool, dry area. I put the box on top of another container to keep it off the cement floor. Rhizomes must not freeze during storage. The temperature should be between 50 and 60 degrees. Never store canna rhizomes in a mesh bag, as this will allow the bulbs to dry out.

Calla Lily

Bulbs should be lifted out of the soil in late fall, but before the first frost. The bulbs bruise, so handle them carefully. Remove the excess soil by either washing or carefully rubbing it off. Dry the bulbs away from direct sunlight or wind for several days. Put them in a paper bag and store them in your basement or other dark, dry location. Like cannas, the temperature should be between 50 and 60 degrees.

Label and Check

When storing, I label the containers carefully. You can use a permanent felt marking pen to write directly on the fleshy root. I find it helpful to attach a sheet of information regarding planting time, depth, etc. to the container.

During the storage season, I periodically check for damaged or rotting material. Any damaged material is removed and thrown away. You don’’t want one bad ““apple”” to spoil the whole bunch.

Once spring arrives, you will be glad you saved those tender bulbs. If you have more corms, rhizomes and bulbs than you can use, think of your fellow gardeners and give them away.

Summer Bulbs

Overwintering Summer Bulbs

by Diana Alfuth, horticulture educator for Pierce & St. Croix County UW-Extension

gladiolus_7-19-06

Tender summer gladiolus

Summer bulbs cannot make it through our cold Wisconsin winters. If you want to plant them again next year, tender bulbs must be dug and stored once the foliage begins to yellow or is killed by frost. Cut the foliage to about 2 inches, dig the bulbs with a spading fork and knock off most of the soil. Don’t wash canna, dahlia or caladium bulbs, but hose off others, if needed. Discard any bulbs with spots or sunken areas, which may indicate the presence of disease.

Once bulbs are dry, pack them with some peat moss, sawdust, perlite, vermiculite or sand, or put them in thick paper bags and place them in a cool, dry place for winter. A root cellar, unheated basement or extra refrigerator can be used to keep temperatures between 50 and 65ºF, or 35 to 55ºF for gladiolus. Don’t store bulbs with ripening fruit, such as apples. The fruit gives off ethylene gas, which can damage bulbs.

Check the bulbs periodically over the winter. If mold is present, spread the bulbs out to dry or otherwise reduce humidity. Separate the bulbs prior to planting next spring.

Planting Summer Bulbs

from The New York Times column ‘Garden Q&A’

Summer bulbs are tropical types that want summer conditions. They will start sprouting when the soil is still less than toasty, but if it is downright cold, they’ll sulk, and if they sulk in soil that is damp as well as cold, they’re likely to rot.

So people in short-season areas have two options: the first is simply to wait for warm weather and then wait for flowers; the other is to give plants like crocosmias, acidantheras, and dahlias a short head start indoors.

Since you don’t want to have to worry about providing greenhouse conditions, wait until it’s near the frost-free date, then plant your summer beauties in a free-draining seed-starting medium like Pro-Mix. Water well, then set the pots (or for small bulbs, plug flats) where they will be warm but not hot, 60º to 65ºF. Add water only as necessary to keep the soil barely moist, and do not fertilize.

It should take a couple of weeks before sprouts show above the soil and start needing light, by which time the weather should be warmer. Set the plots outside in a sheltered spot where they will get plenty of sun but be protected from cold winds, and be prepared to move them indoors if the temperature threatens to go below 55ºF. Once you’re sure the weather has settled in a warm direction, transplant into the garden.

Keep your Caladiums

Starr_071024-9740_Caladium_bicolorAre your caladiums so beautiful this year that you can’t face the thought of getting rid of them when the summer is over? Why not try to keep them until next summer?! They can be left in the garden into fall so that the leaves can continue working and the tuber can continue to grow larger. However, once frost is in the forecast, don’t wait — just dig, taking up the whole plants or only the tubers.

To winter over a caladium, put the tuber into storage immediately or pot up the whole plant and place it in a brightly lighted windowsill. By late January, the caladium is going to look tired and will need to rest before the tuber is repotted in the spring or planted in the garden after the soil has warmed up. Chop off the foliage, knock off the soil, and let the tuber dry at room temperature. Any condensation will encourage bacterial rot. Store the tuber in dry vermiculite or in a mesh bag (like an onion bag) in a dry place, ideally at 70º to 75ºF but never below 50º, making sure there is good air circulation. Remember: it needs to be stored dry!!

Caladium is an extraordinary foliage plant. Its leaves can be white with narrow green borders or combinations of white, green, and rosy pinks, in pale to outrageous patterns that approach a third grader’s first attempt at stained glass. Most caladiums are hybrids of Caladium bicolor or C. picturatum, native to the tropics of the Americas and the West Indies. Plants can be costly, but tubers are inexpensive so you can just say goodbye at frost time if you like.