Do You Feed Your Trees?

tree-970850_960_720Here’s a question that tends to divide folks right down the middle. When it comes to the wisdom of feeding trees, expert opinion is sharply — in some cases acrimoniously — divided, but the weight of modern practice is increasingly in favor of the dictum that less is more.

A small amount of fertilizer is fine. It will help compensate for the absence of natural fertility that tends to distinguish lawns (where all the leaf litter gets raked up and there is no understory to speak of) from woodlands (where the trees are nourished by lots of decayed plant material).

Fence_and_tree_lined_lawn_Little_Laver_Road,_Essex_EnglandBut before you go out and buy tree food, remember that the small amount needed is likely to be already present as a by-product of fertilizing the lawn. Once you get into adding more than that, it’s likely you will do more harm than good — if you do anything at all. The harm comes because fertilizer pushes the tree into making lots of tender, soft growth. It’s lush, it’s green, it’s very impressive, and it’s also highly vulnerable t insect attacks, climate stress, and the myriad fungus diseases that would be thwarted by tougher tissue.

The doesn’t-do-anything-at-all situation results from putting the food where the tree can’t get at it. Most of a tree’s feeder roots are in the top 10 to 18 inches of soil, and most of them start near the out edge of the canopy (the drip line) and spread outward from there. That means using an injector to put the eats down deep is not going to do much except pollute the groundwater. And spreading the tree’s meal close to its trunk will be just as fruitless.

The bottom line: keep feeding to a minimum unless the tree is in a container where it cannot possibly find nourishment on its own. And if you do use fertilizer on a landscape tree, spread it in a wide band that works out from the drip line.

Pruning Rule Breakers

rhododendron-245633_960_720Rhododendrons, unlike most shrubs, have no painless window for pruning. They start forming the buds for next year’s flowers before this year’s have even opened, and by the time bloom season is done, those buds are well advanced.

It’s difficult emotionally to cut off any of next year’s flowers, but if you continually avoid pruning, you may be even more devastated. In fact, you could end up having to cut the rhododendrons to the ground and start all over again.

Pruning rhododendrons requires imagination as well as sharp sheers. Dr. Richard Lighty, the director of the Mount Cuba Center for the Study of Piedmont Flora in Greenville, Delaware, advises that you try to visualize what the shrub should look like. Reach your goal by critically selecting strong outer branches that, when pruned back, will expose smaller inner branches in the right position to fill in. Once exposed to light, these inner branches will begin to grow.Rhododendron-pruning-outline-diagram1

As the flowers fade, trim no more than 15 to 20 inches off the strong branches. Where should you prune? Where the strong branch is near the tip of an inner branch that has a whorl of glossy leaves surrounding the buds, your signal that the inner branch is healthy. If the shrubs are still too big, reprune in two years.

To make sure the plant has stored enough food that it can easily handle pruning, fertilize in late fall the year before you intend to prune. If you fertilize after pruning, it will put out long, leggy growth.

Although it is better to stay on top of your regular pruning chores, rhododendrons can be cut down to 12 to 15 inches from the ground if necessary. The plants have buds at their base that will generally send up new shoots. But, as I learned, there won’t be any flowers for two to three years.

Return to Reverence – The Marigold

by OCMGA Master Gardener Tammy Borden

Early on in my marriage I wasn’t exactly a gardening diva. In fact, I had very little interest in gardening. But my husband’s father, Louie, had gardening in his veins. I fondly remember going to his house and weaving my way through narrow passageways of seedling flats in his garage. Soon, the flats were transferred to a small greenhouse set up in his driveway. It wasn’t long before friends, neighbors and strangers were stopping in to buy his plants and engaging in some of the most colorful conversation they had ever had.

download (1)Louie, the ultimate salesman, always touted each variety of flower he grew, but none seemed to rival his affection for marigolds. Yes, I said marigolds! It’s not just the marigold’s distinctive scent that causes many seasoned gardeners to turn up their noses. What is it then, that brings many to dismiss them? Could it be that we have become gardening snobs, believing we have progressed too far in our botanical knowledge to extol such a lowly flower, as though it is only reserved for the commoners and unsophisticated gardeners? I hope not. I long to bring marigolds back to their once revered reputation. It’s name alone expresses how admired and respected it once was. In fact, marigold or “Mary’s gold,” was named after the most revered of all women in history, the Virgin Mary, and were believed to bring good luck. Originally discovered in Central America in the 16th century by the Portuguese, it was brought back to Europe where it grew in popularity. Today in South Asia, yellow and orange marigold flowers are grown and harvested by the millions to make garlands used to decorate statues and buildings. In Mexico and Latin America, marigold flowers are used to celebrate All Saints Day and All Souls Day, and flower heads are scattered on relatives’ graves. So, it stands to reason that they should receive an honored place in our own gardens. Through the years many hybrids have been developed to bring out the most desirable characteristics like large flower heads, various plant sizes and unique colorations.

Perhaps the furthest advances in breeding, however, have been in diminishing one of its most notable qualities: its scent. Many people find the scent offensive. I personally find it’s something that one needs to learn to appreciate. I like to think of it like coffee; when I first tried coffee, I couldn’t understand why anyone would drink such an awful concoction. But with time I came to acquire a taste for the brew and now I love to greet each morning with a hot cup of coffee. And likewise, I love to greet each spring with marigolds.

Many use marigolds to outline garden beds or vegetable plots, believing they help keep out rabbits, deer and insects. While marigolds can deter some pests, they are not the all-purpose pest and plant repellent that people have been led to believe they are. Yet the marigold itself is virtually pest and disease free, with the exception of their arch-nemesis, earwigsfrench-marigold-1225611__180, which like to nestle and munch inside its tightly clustered flower heads. Despite countless breeders’ attempts, very few new color varieties of marigolds have been developed. The most common remain the yellow, gold and orange varieties seen in garden centers and catalogues. You will not find a pink marigold… yet.

Burpee’s Seeds, however, has done exceptionally well with developing unusual white varieties of marigolds. ‘French Vanilla’ is my personal favorite. It’s scent is light and pleasant, and is one of Burpee’s earliest triumphs in hybridizing white marigolds. It grows to 2’ with large 3½” flower heads and deep green foliage. The blooms are white with a hint of cream. Other notable white varieties include ‘Snowball’ and ‘Snowdrift’. Burpee’s Seeds played a major role in making the marigold among the most used flowers in America. After sweeping over Europe and Asia in popularity, David Burpee saw the promise in marigolds. In 1915 he took over the seed company founded by his father, W. Atlee Burpee. Young David felt that marigolds held promise and decided to feature them in his catalog and fund research. If you love giant flower heads, try the ‘Inca’ or ‘Inca II’ varieties. These giants produce 4-5” flower heads of bright yellow or orange on stocky 20” plants. If you’ve driven down South Oneida Street in Appleton during the summer, you’ll notice this variety lining the streets of Marigold Mile. Many other great varieties are available. Here are the three most common types of marigolds:

 

  • African or American Marigolds: These plants grow to 3’ in height with large globe-shaped flowers. ‘French Vanilla’ is among these beauties.
  • French Marigolds: These plants generally grow from 5-18” tall. Flower colors include red, orange and yellow, as well as bicolor varieties. Flowers grow to 2”across. A great new variety is called ‘Fireball,’ a unique combination of yellow and reddish orange with a large flower head.
  • Signet Marigolds: Recognized for their finely divided, lacy foliage and clusters of small, single flowers. The flowers are yellow to orange colored and are edible, having a spicy tarragon flavor. The foliage also has a pleasant lemon fragrance. A popular variety is ‘Starfire,’ with petite, bushy plants that boast hundreds of small florets.

downloadThe marigold. It’s no fuss, easy going, with a bright and sunny disposition. It may not be the flashiest of flowers or even the most impressive. It’s good at highlighting others around it, and is reliable, strong and simple. But I suppose that is why I love the marigold so much. Its attributes, character and charm remind me of Louie, who has sadly since gone on to meet the Master Gardener of all gardeners. It is partly because of him that I am so passionate about starting my own seeds, and I will always grow ‘French Vanilla’ marigolds in his memory.

Fragrant Night Bloomers

by OCMGA Master Gardener Vicki Schilleman

Perfume that doesn’t attract insects would be a horticultural oxymoron: putting out the come-hither for pollinators is a flower’s sole purpose, and perfume is a large part of the mating dance. However, not everyone wants to sit in a garden when the bees and other pollinators are moving around, and you can have a fragrant garden that’s low on bees by using night-blooming plants.

Brugmansia_tree;_closeup_of_white_flower

Brugmansia

 

Choices range from the small, inconspicuous, but mightily perfumed annual known as night-blooming stock (Matthiola bicornis) to the many cultivated varieties of Brugmansia, a tropical tree that can grow to 10 feet or more and has been showing up in nurseries under the name angels’ trumpets. All parts of the brugmansia are highly poisonous, but there’s no denying the plant’s appeal. It’s huge flowers blare tropical sweetness from dusk until almost sunup. White is the most common color and usually the most fragrant, but brugmansia also comes in yellow, orange, peach, and pink. Like Chinese hybiscus, mandevilla, and the many other tropicals sold by nurseries in temperate climates, brugmansias are not frost hardy and must be overwintered indoors.

P1000475_Nicotiana_sylvestris_(Flowering_tobacco)_(Solanaceae)_Plant

Nicotiana Sylvestris

 

If you want to stick to annuals, there are plenty to choose from — nicotiana, for example. You’d never know it from the modern cultivars, which lost fragrance when they were bred to stay open during the day, but old-fashioned flowering tobacco (Nicotiana alata) has a very strong night perfume, and so does its much taller, architecturally splendid cousin N. sylvestris.

Other candidates include moonflower vines, night-blooming jasmine, evening primrose, and oddball day lilies like ‘Pardon Me,’ which don’t get going until the sun goes down.

Naturally Weed-Resistant Lawn

by OCMGA Master Gardener Vicki Schilleman

Back Yard Vinyl Fence Outside Grass Lawn NatureEveryone wants the perfect sea of smooth green lawn with nary a hint of weed, bare spot, or discolored grass. Alas, easier said than done! However, here are 5 steps that will help create a beautiful and naturally weed-resistant lawn.

  1. Prepare the soil. Though they are seldom thought of that way, expanses of mown grass are actually very intensive gardens. Loose, fertile soil of the right pH is even more important for good lawns than it is for tasty tomatoes or lavishly blooming shrubs.
  2. Invest in the best seed, use enough of it, and plant it at the right time. The first defense against weeks is a turf that is thick enough to prevent them from getting the light they need to sprout and grow. The grass won’t be thick if you’re stingy with either quality of quantity, and it won’t fill in properly unless you give it a proper start.
  3. Think long term. Be sure the seed mixture comprises grasses that will be long lived, such as red fescues and bluegrasses. There should be only a very small amount of rye grass, if there is any at all. Rye grasses grow quickly, helping the lawn to look good fast and preventing the growth of some weeds. But because they are up so quickly, they steal nutrients, water, and light from slower-growing but more durable types. As a result, newly established turf has a lot of rye in it. This is fine for a short while. But even perennial rye dies out within a few years, and when it does it leaves a whole lot of room for weeds to move in. A sprinkling of rye can be used if you are the impatient type. But you’ll have better long-term weed control if you go for the slow stuff and hand-weed for the first year or so while the good grasses are settling in.
  4. Adjust the mower to the season. No matter what height you like your lawn, letting it get a bit shaggy in summer — a good 3 inches tall — will cut down on weeds. The taller gras provides more shade, keeping the grass roots cool and healthy while making it harder for weed seeds to sprout and find the light.
  5. Don’t water if there’s a drought. This may seem counterintuitive, and it isn’t entirely true: if you have an endless supply and can water the lawn thoroughly, by all means go ahead. But if water is limited, you’re much better off letter the lawn go dormant than trying to give it “just enough to stay alive.” Grasses naturally lie low and turn brown during droughts. They aren’t dead — they’re just sleeping. A small amount of water won’t be enough to keep grasses green, but it will keep the lawn green, because the watered weeds will thrive

Organic Weed & Feed

For those of us who become frustrated at the growth of weeds in our lawns when we’re using organic fertilizers, there is one help: corn gluten meal, a by-product of corn milling. It is quite high in nitrogen, which makes it a good fertilizer for grass. And it will prevent weed seeds from growing.

But — there’s always a but — that’s it. Corn gluten kills by drying up the baby sprouts as soon as the seed cracks open. It has no effect on perennial weeds (other than to encourage them) or on annual weeds that are already growing.

Furthermore, it must make good contact with the weed seeds in order to kill them, not a problem on bare soil but a tricky proposition if the grass is reasonably thick. It works best when the soil is warm, by which time many annual weeds have long since been up and about. And it lasts for only about six weeks, so you have to apply it frequently.

All that said, corn gluten is a relatively benign fertilizer, and it can help control annual weeds if you use it faithfully, from spring to fall, for a couple of years. It is nontoxic and, in home-garden quantities, safe for the environment.

Life Lessons from the Garden: From a Chore to a Delight

by OCMGA Master Gardener Tammy Borden

I grudgingly picked up the rake and began in the corner of my yard, which seemed the size of a small nation at the time. It was overwhelming. Spring had arrived, and the yard was strewn with litter, leaves and pine cones. But I pressed on, determined to conquer my yard. As I inched along I noticed a chickadee in a tree about twenty feet away. He’d swoop down to grab a single sunflower seed from my bird feeder and fly back up to his familiar branch. He’d sit and crack it against the bark to open it, eat the nut, and fly back down. This went on for quite some time, and as I continued to rake, I got closer and closer to my new-found companion. The chickadee didn’t seem to mind that I was now only a couple feet away. He flew down once again, right in front of me, and snatched a seed. I stood there for a moment, admiring his bravery. Curious, I leaned my rake against the feeder and reached inside to grab a handful of seeds. Raising my hand to the sky, I thought, “It sure would be cool if he…” Just then, the little chickadee flew down and landed on my finger. It felt like a whisper and I almost winced at the touch of his tiny feet. He gave a scolding chirp, grabbed a single seed and flew back to his perch. I stood there motionless for a moment with my hand outstretched. But inside my heart leapt with excitement and disbelief.

In an instant, the tedious chore of raking my lawn became a delight. I didn’t have a very willing attitude when I first started raking my lawn. But I obediently did it, despite my reluctance. And I was rewarded with an unexpected treasure. I think that’s true in life too. There are many things I know I “should” do, but I always find an excuse to put it off. Maybe there are areas in your own life where you are reluctant and unwilling because the sacrifice of time, money or effort seems overwhelming. But as is true with working in the garden, a great, and often, unexpected reward awaits you. Honestly, I can’t wait to experience the joy of raking my lawn this spring. But I would not have that willing attitude, had I not… grudgingly picked up the rake and began in the corner of my yard, which seemed the size of a small nation at the time ..

Tammy is a regular contributor to Garden Snips

 

The Scent of Improved Health

The following article is taken from “Renew”, a UnitedHealthcare magazine. The source quoted is The National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy.

Chamomile: relieves anxiety; promotes sleep; is anti-inflammatory

For thousands of years, the medicinal benefits of

Lemon: energizes and uplifts the mind; detoxifies; repels viruses

inhaling aromas of certain essential oils have been known by many cultures around the world.

Today, aromatherapy — using plant extracts and essential oils for their scent — is used in some hospitals and clinics as complementary medicine.

Eucalyptus: relieves congestion; clears and energizes the mind; helps with brochitis

A 2013 study published by Bentham Science in Current Drug Targets has indicated certain health benefits of aromatherapy — from killing bacteria to improving mood disorders to combating insomnia. In 2014, a review of several studies published

in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine found a positive effect from essential oils on sleep disturbances with no adverse reactions. Plus, for more than a decade, essential oils have been studied for use in cancer therapy (in tandem with conventional treatment), and the results of more than 100 studies have been promising to doctors and other health practitioners.

Lavender: reduces anxiety; produces a sense of calm; promotes cell regeneration (which is good for wounds and burns)

What’s wonderful about aromatherapy is that you can experience it at home. Essential oils are widely available for purchase, so check you local grocery or health foods store. The National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy, naha.org, also has tips to get you started.

Here are a few ways to use aromatherapy essential

Peppermint: relieves nausea; is an analgesic for aches and pains; reduces migraines; energizing

oils at home:

  • Dilute into a spritzer and spray a room
  • Add drops to your bath water
  • Add drops into boiling water or a steamer