by Sharon Morrisey, consumer horticulture agent for Milwaukee County
Many summer fruits ripen from July through fall. Summer raspberries (Rubus) are next to ripen after June-bearing strawberries (Fragaria ananassa). They are ready to pick when slightly firm, aromatic and flavorful. Pick all ripe berries every couple of days. Overripe fruit attracts picnic bugs, which are no picnic when they feast on your fruit.
Grape (Vitis vinifera) varieties often look ripe before they actually are. It may take an additional two to three weeks on the vine for the full sugar content to develop. They do not continue ripening after picking, so do not pick until they taste perfectly ripe. Then, use as soon after harvest as possible because they don’t store well.
Stone fruits (Prunus spp.), such as plums, cherries, apricots, and peaches that survived the winter, should not be picked until they are ripe, either. Unfortunately, the birds seem to know the exact minute that occurs. They can devour an entire cherry crop in one afternoon. The only ways to prevent this are to either cover the entire tree with bird netting as soon as the fruit begins developing or use a chemical repellant spray.
As soon as the larger fruits are ripe, birds begin pecking holes in them. A friend of mine checks them daily and at the first sign of pecking, he harvests the entire crop, thus avoiding the use of chemicals and the hassle of bird netting.
Like grapes, apples often look ripe before they really are, since the outer color often develops first. Start by knowing when the varieties you are growing are supposed to ripen. There are varieties that ripen from early August through October.
- Lodi – 1st week in August
- Redfree – 3rd week in August
- Gala – 2nd week in September
- Honeycrisp – 3rd week in September
- Nova Easygro – 3rd week in September
- Empire – 1st week of October
- Liberty – 1st week of October
- Jonathan – 2nd week of October
- Golden Delicious – 3rd week of October
The best indicator of ripeness is the color of the seeds. When they are completely shiny brown, the fruit is ripe. You may end up sacrificing an apple every couple of days this way, however. Another indicator is more subtle, but involves a change in the shade of green in the skin at the stem end of the fruit. When it turns from a bright, green-apple green to a lighter shade, it’s time to check the seeds for uniform color.