Tag Archive | fruit

Ripe Fruit

by Sharon Morrisey, consumer horticulture agent for Milwaukee County

Many summer fruits ripen from July through fall. Summer raspberries (Rubus) are next to ripen after June-bearing strawberries (Fragaria ananassa). They are ready to pick when slightly firm, aromatic and flavorful. Pick all ripe berries every couple of days. Overripe fruit attracts picnic bugs, which are no picnic when they feast on your fruit.

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Vineyard swathed in netting to protect the ripening fruit

Grape (Vitis vinifera) varieties often look ripe before they actually are. It may take an additional two to three weeks on the vine for the full sugar content to develop. They do not continue ripening after picking, so do not pick until they taste perfectly ripe. Then, use as soon after harvest as possible because they don’t store well.

Stone fruits (Prunus spp.), such as plums, cherries, apricots, and peaches that survived the winter, should not be picked until they are ripe, either. Unfortunately, the birds seem to know the exact minute that occurs. They can devour an entire cherry crop in one afternoon. The only ways to prevent this are to either cover the entire tree with bird netting as soon as the fruit begins developing or use a chemical repellant spray.

As soon as the larger fruits are ripe, birds begin pecking holes in them. A friend of mine checks them daily and at the first sign of pecking, he harvests the entire crop, thus avoiding the use of chemicals and the hassle of bird netting.

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Beautiful, freshly-picked apples

Like grapes, apples often look ripe before they really are, since the outer color often develops first. Start by knowing when the varieties you are growing are supposed to ripen. There are varieties that ripen from early August through October.

  • Lodi – 1st week in August
  • Redfree – 3rd week in August
  • Gala – 2nd week in September
  • Honeycrisp – 3rd week in September
  • Nova Easygro – 3rd week in September
  • Empire – 1st week of October
  • Liberty – 1st week of October
  • Jonathan – 2nd week of October
  • Golden Delicious – 3rd week of October

The best indicator of ripeness is the color of the seeds. When they are completely shiny brown, the fruit is ripe. You may end up sacrificing an apple every couple of days this way, however. Another indicator is more subtle, but involves a change in the shade of green in the skin at the stem end of the fruit. When it turns from a bright, green-apple green to a lighter shade, it’s time to check the seeds for uniform color.

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Pioneer Chinese Apricot

by OCMGA Master Gardener Tom Wentzel

UntitledThis photo was taken on April 17. I have 2 of these trees and they are both loaded with blossoms.   This variety is hardy to zone 5, so we are on the north edge of its range. In general, apricots are one of the first fruit trees to bloom which makes them susceptible to late frosts. These trees are growing up against my house as an espalier. This gives them a little extra protection. Still, I do not get a harvest every year. The taste of the fruit is amazing. You do need to keep an eye on them because they ripen very quickly.

My next crop is peaches. It’ll be a couple weeks before they bloom. The variety that I have is Contender, which is the most common variety in this area. This is a freestone variety that is hardy to zone 4. I do get a harvest yearly from the trees that I have.

Don’t be afraid to give these a try. Both are self-pollinating. They are not more work than any other fruit tree. I do not spray and have not had any insect problems. Admittedly there may be a fungus starting on the peach, I keep an eye on that.

Not many of the apricots or peaches make it into the kitchen, they get eaten on the way.

Prune that Raspberry patch

How-to-grow-raspberries-young-fruitUnderstanding how raspberries produce is the key to getting the most from them. While their roots are perennial, their canes are biennial, dying after the second growing year. In order to prune successfully, you have to know which canes bear when, and that is a function of whether are summer bearers or fall bearers.

Summer-bearing raspberries act like true biennials; the first year is for producing leaves, and the second year is for flower and fruit production. After that, the dead canes just stand around interfering with berry picking. Every year, raspberries send up new canes, so the penalty for not pruning — rampant sprawl and painful harvests — mounts.

The elegant way to prune summer-bearing raspberries is to cut all canes at soil level in the summer, after they are finished fruiting, and then prune out all but the strongest four or five new canes in the spring, once they are 8 to 10 inches high.

Fall-bearing raspberries, also (somewhat misleadingly) called ever-bearing, produce fruit twice; at the tops of the canes in late summer or early fall of the first year, and again lower down on the canes during midsummer of the second (and final) year.

Prune fall-bearers in the spring. For maximum yields, completely remove the canes that produced fruit during the previous midsummer (look for old, cracking bark on the two-year old canes). Leave enough of the brand-new canes to produce a late, first-summer crop, while removing as many as necessary to control the size of the plant.

Alternatively, you can simply cut fall-bearing raspberries to the ground each spring. You’ll get only the late crop of berries, but you won’t have to decide which canes are two years old and which ones are only one; you simply whack them all back.