Tag Archive | apple trees

Ripe Fruit

by Sharon Morrisey, consumer horticulture agent for Milwaukee County

Many summer fruits ripen from July through fall. Summer raspberries (Rubus) are next to ripen after June-bearing strawberries (Fragaria ananassa). They are ready to pick when slightly firm, aromatic and flavorful. Pick all ripe berries every couple of days. Overripe fruit attracts picnic bugs, which are no picnic when they feast on your fruit.

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Vineyard swathed in netting to protect the ripening fruit

Grape (Vitis vinifera) varieties often look ripe before they actually are. It may take an additional two to three weeks on the vine for the full sugar content to develop. They do not continue ripening after picking, so do not pick until they taste perfectly ripe. Then, use as soon after harvest as possible because they don’t store well.

Stone fruits (Prunus spp.), such as plums, cherries, apricots, and peaches that survived the winter, should not be picked until they are ripe, either. Unfortunately, the birds seem to know the exact minute that occurs. They can devour an entire cherry crop in one afternoon. The only ways to prevent this are to either cover the entire tree with bird netting as soon as the fruit begins developing or use a chemical repellant spray.

As soon as the larger fruits are ripe, birds begin pecking holes in them. A friend of mine checks them daily and at the first sign of pecking, he harvests the entire crop, thus avoiding the use of chemicals and the hassle of bird netting.

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Beautiful, freshly-picked apples

Like grapes, apples often look ripe before they really are, since the outer color often develops first. Start by knowing when the varieties you are growing are supposed to ripen. There are varieties that ripen from early August through October.

  • Lodi – 1st week in August
  • Redfree – 3rd week in August
  • Gala – 2nd week in September
  • Honeycrisp – 3rd week in September
  • Nova Easygro – 3rd week in September
  • Empire – 1st week of October
  • Liberty – 1st week of October
  • Jonathan – 2nd week of October
  • Golden Delicious – 3rd week of October

The best indicator of ripeness is the color of the seeds. When they are completely shiny brown, the fruit is ripe. You may end up sacrificing an apple every couple of days this way, however. Another indicator is more subtle, but involves a change in the shade of green in the skin at the stem end of the fruit. When it turns from a bright, green-apple green to a lighter shade, it’s time to check the seeds for uniform color.

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Pruning Water Sprouts

by Sharon Morrisey, Milwaukee County consumer horticulture agent

apple-watersproutsAs a general rule, pruning of woody landscape plants should not be done in midsummer. The one exception is water sprouts on fruit trees, particularly apples and crabapples. Both are in the genus MalusĀ and have a greater tendency to produce water sprouts than most other genera. Water sprouts form in response to pruning out large, diameter branches.

hqdefaultIt has been shown that if the removal of water sprouts is delayed until late July or early August, fewer new water sprouts will form. If pruned out in early spring when all other pruning is being done, more water sprouts will be stimulated and a vicious cycle begun.

Water sprouts are branches that grow straight up from a larger-diameter branch. They grow very quickly and arise from latent buds buried deep inside the larger branch. The sprouts push through the outer layers of wood and bark.

As they grow taller and thicker, they become top heavy. Since they have no real connection of the branch, summer and winter storms can blow them over, and in the process, break the branch they are growing on. These sprouts also look awkward and out of place.

To avoid having to prune out large branches, begin developing the structure of trees when they are young so you remove only small branches.