This blog post is from botanichka.ru, a Russian garden site. It’s incredibly interesting to me that the same problems occur everywhere — and gardening is truly an international language! This has been translated from Russian so the syntax and grammar may not sound exactly right.
Very often in suburban areas aphid damage, many trees and shrubs. Thereby causing irreparable damage to the gardener. This small insect harms not only garden plants but also indoor. It can be seen even with the naked eye. Vegetable, fruit, berry and flower cultures are damaged by various species of aphids. Often, many gardeners do not know how to treat already diseased plants. Let’s see what kind of insects and how to fight it?
Aphids ( Aphididae ) – is insects of the order Heteroptera ( Hemiptera ) ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm. The body is egg-shaped, soft and easily crushed, the legs are long, but the insects are moving slowly. There are wingless and winged birds.
Apterous female oblong-oval long mouthparts, thickened front. Winged insects have two pairs of wings, they fly and infect other plants. Proliferation of the aphids is because only one apterous female fertilization to 10-20 times every two weeks to give progeny 150 larvae.
Adult aphids – small insect green or black. In the middle of summer in some individuals grow wings. Thus, pests move considerable distances to find new sources of food. Aphids lives on buds, stems and the underside of the leaves on the tips of young shoots, preferring fatliquoring branches (tops).
Aphids – exceptionally large group of insects. According to the most conservative estimates it has about 4000 species, of which almost a thousand lives in Europe. Each year, describes all the new types.
Reproduction and air migration
Aphid lays eggs, certain types inherent in a live birth. Most species of aphids multiply over several generations using parthenogenesis. Certain generation is born winged and opposite-sex. In species that change hands, it happens before settling at a new plant or too rapid growth of the colony and the associated overpopulation. Winged individuals are able to travel long distances and create new colonies in new places.
According to new research, birth winged aphids may be caused by the particular aromatic substances, which are released by aphids when they are attacked by the enemy, for example ladybirds. These substances cause warning in the colony of great concern and increased traffic. This creates the effect of overpopulation, which causes a rapid production of winged offspring.
Damage from aphids
The damage to plants, aphids, many people underestimate, but in vain. Aphids are sucking plant sap from the stems and leaves, buds and buds. In the affected plant leaves are twisted, deformed buds and shoots, growth is slowing, the fruits do not ripen. Struck the weakened plants may not survive the winter. In addition to direct damage, aphid transmission of viral diseases on sugary secretions of aphids settled the black sooty fungus (black sooty mildew).
Aphids pierce the veil and sucks the juice plant. In places of mass tissue bites are deformed, and then die. Flowers on peduncles infected do not develop, wither as soon reveal. Sam spike quickly fade. Aphids, like mealybugs, root scale insects, whiteflies, leafhoppers, shitovki, Coccidae, suck out the plant a lot more juice than they need to maintain vitality.
Excess moisture and carbohydrate excreted aphids in the form of sugary secretions called honeydew or honeydew. This sticky sweet liquid covers the plant, making it difficult to breathe. Pad is a good substrate for the development of various fungi. Sooty fungus, e.g., a sheet may cover a continuous layer, reducing the rate of photosynthesis that inhibits the already weakened plants.
External signs of injury
Along with the clearly visible to the naked eye of the defeat aphids insects indicate warped tops of the shoots, twisted leaves and sweet selection (honeydew) on leaves and shoots. Subsequently, these secretions settles sooty fungus. If you see that some ants running around plants, be sure to check for the presence of aphids. Usually attracts ants honeydew that aphids highlights.
For aphids symbiotic ants. Some ants protect ( “shepherd”), aphids and receive from it in return release containing sugar.
Aphids live in large groups on the underside of leaves around growth points, on young shoots, buds, stalks, feeding on plant juices. They are dangerous in that weaken the plant, reduce its resistance to disease, and may also be vectors of viral diseases.
In damaged plant leaves curl and turn yellow, form nodules, buds do not develop or produce ugly flowers. In mature leaves appear sticky plaque, which can settle the fungus. Particularly affected by aphids roses, carnations, fuchsia, many Araceae, vygonochnyh bulb culture.
Many species of aphids can spread plant diseases in the form of viruses and cause the plants a variety of abnormalities, such as the Gauls and gallopodobnye education.
The diet of aphids
Aphids can settle on almost any garden and indoor plants, it is important not to miss the moment and start a fight at the time. Especially attractive to aphids green fruit trees and shrubs, roses, chrysanthemums, many houseplants. For black – beans, garden cornflower, etc.
Carefully inspect all new plants brought into the house, or bought for the garden and bouquets of fresh flowers – they may already have aphids. Upon detection of the enemy – to urgently take measures to combat it, otherwise it will occupy your plants and the struggle will require you to disproportionate effort.
When it comes to aphids in the garden Put umbrella plants – carrots, dill, fennel, parsley and others. Thus you will attract to the garden tireless eaters of aphids – hover flies. Arrange the flower pots in the garden with wood chips – they can settle earwigs also big fans of aphids for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Attract birds in the garden – arrange for these feeders, bird houses, ruining not found in the garden of the nest, the birds eat aphids in large quantities.
Lavender planted in the rose garden, the green scare aphids.
Thyme (savory), seeded next with legumes, to protect them from the black aphids.
The cherry tree trunks Sow nasturtium – it will attract the black aphids, reducing the load on the tree, in addition to combat aphids on nasturtium easier than on a tree.
Do not overuse chemicals unnecessarily – with the pests you destroy their enemies, hover flies, earwigs, ladybugs, lacewings, riders, ground beetles and predatory bugs.
It is important to a balanced feeding of plants – aphids prefer overfed or weak from lack of nutrients the plant. In addition to regular feedings strong healthy plants should be the right choice growing location, sufficient light and water, good air circulation – all this also is the prevention of the pest. It is important to loosen the soil under the plants, but better – mulch.
Ways to combat aphids
Insecticides against aphids
Aphids fairly easily destroyed by insecticides. Insecticides aphid separated into preparations contact, intestinal and systemic action.
contact action drugs penetrate the insect body surface and kill him. An example is the preparation of such formulations: Fufanon (Malathion)
Preparations intestinal action enter the digestive system of insects, causing his poisoning and death.
The most common combination of drugs produce a contact-intestinal action: Akarin, aktellik, Bankole
Systemic medications penetrate into all cells of the plant, including the fruit, and kept it for 2 to 4 weeks, not washed away by rain and irrigation. Systemic medications have the largest waiting time, easy to use, but the most dangerous. You must be careful to use them. The most advanced system drugs: Akhtar, Biotlin, Tanrek.
Folk remedies against aphids
Decoctions and infusions of herbs against aphids
Effectively act decoctions of herbs and crops, e.g. Dryopteris , wormwood , tansy , tobacco dust , yarrow , hot pepper , dandelion , garlic , onion , foliage of tomato , potato haulm , mustard , rhubarb (from black aphids). Wanted 2-3-fold processing at intervals of 7-10 days.
It is suitable infusion garlic or onion : 30 grams of minced garlic (onion) and 4 grams of soap pour liter of water. If pour houseplant liter of warm water, which dissolve 80 grams of sodium chloride, it is possible to get rid of the aphids, and ticks. Spraying and watering should be carried out at least three times with an interval of 10 days.
You can use the infusion of onion peel , tomato leaves . Treatment should be repeated 3 times at intervals of 8-10 days. When heavily infested by aphids small plants can be omitted in this solution, previously covering the ground. It is also possible around the affected aphids plants put for 2-3 days scented pelargonium, and aphids will disappear.
Pestilent insects are opposed to the infusion of cayenne pepper . 100 g of fresh fruits pour water and boiled for at least an hour in a sealed container liter. Then, insist two days, pepper rubbed, and filter the solution. Spray tenfold concentrate is diluted with water, add a tablespoon to soap powder.
Abundant watering with liquid fertilizer nettle can sometimes expel aphids in a few days. Plants rapidly absorb this nutrient, reinforcing mixture and for this reason in a short time become more resistant to pests.
Celandine harvested during flowering (take the whole plant). 300-400 g or 100 g of fresh chopped dry weight necessary to insist in 1 liter of water is boiled for 24-36 hours or 30 minutes. It also helps by Coccidae and thrips.
Taraxacum officinale (300 grams of ground roots of either 400 g of fresh leaf insist 1-2 hours in 10 liters of warm water (not more than 40 degrees), filter and sprayed.
Tagetis (marigold) at the time of flowering (dry raw material bucket is filled 1/2, poured 10 liters of warm water, insist 2 days, filtered and added to 40 g of soap).
Other teas and infusions
100 grams of dried peels of citrus fruits pour 1 liter of warm water and leave for three days in a warm place. Then spray.
Tobacco and tobacco. 40 g of dry raw insist in 1 liter of water to 2 days, filtered and added to another liter of water.
Also, when a plant aphids are sprayed with a solution of tar of soap (10 g per liter of water) or to settle and the filtered broth wood ash prepared as follows: 300 g of the sieved ash is poured boiling water and put on fire for 30 minutes. Topped up with 10 liters of water before use.
Wood ash. 2 ash glass soaked in 10 l. water, add 50 grams. shaving soap.
If all the plants appeared a few aphids – remove them with a damp cotton swab.
Of course, at first glance, it seems that destroy these “small parasites” can not be looking at moth aphid plant, hands down immediately, but do not despair so early! For example, my grandmother is struggling with aphids only traditional methods and I want to say, they work!